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Topical Resource Lists

Strengthening Global Civil Society:
A Resource List

Civil society remains a popular topic in literature as the nonprofit sector continues to expand not only in industrialized nations but in developing countries as well. Defined by Lester Salamon as "the broad range of institutions that occupy the social space between the market and the state," (Global Civil Society, 2003) civil society plays an essential role in providing social services to the public. This resource list, which contains citations to selected works from the Foundation Center's bibliographic database, Catalog of Nonprofit Literature, will help you explore the international third sector and provide insight into the transnational cooperation and global philanthropy that have contributed to the development of civil society around the world. For complete bibliographies on related topics, search Catalog of Nonprofit Literature, using headings such as Civil society, Nongovernmental organizations, Nonprofit organizations-international, or International philanthropy in the Subject field. You may wish to add a specific country name in the Keyword field.

Global Civil Society

Abramson, Alan J. Mapping New Worlds: Selected Research on the Nonprofit Sector Around the Globe. Washington, DC: Aspen Institute, 2001. vi, 84 p. ISBN: 0-89843-322-3. Call Number: 301 ABR.
A collection of essays discussing the international nonprofit sector. Countries and regions covered include El Salvador, Hungary, China, South Korea, Poland, Bulgaria, Argentina, and Africa.

Anheier, Helmut K. (ed.); Kendall, Jeremy (ed.) Third Sector Policy at the Crossroads: An International Nonprofit Analysis. London, England: Routledge, 2001. x, 257 p. ISBN: 0-415-21313-4. Call Number: 301 ANH THI.
A collection of essays by various specialists. Contents include "The Third Sector and the European Union Policy Process: An Initial Evaluation" by Jeremy Kendall and Helmut K. Anheier; "The Distinction between Institutionalized and Noninstitutionalized NPOs: New Policy Initiatives and Nonprofit Organizations in Japan" by Masayuki Deguchi; "The American Third Sector at the End of the Twentieth Century: Public and Private Revisited" by Eleanor L. Brilliant; "NGOs and their Vulnerabilities During the Time of Transition: The Case of Poland" by Joanna Regulska; "Different Eastern European Countries at Different Crossroads" by Eva Kuti; "Civil Organizations in Mexico: Recent Evolutions and Current Prospects" by José Luis Méndez; "Beyond the Crossroads: Policy Issues for the Philippine Nonprofit Sector" by Ledivina V. Cariño; "South Africa: Anti-Apartheid NGOs in Transition" by Adam Habib and Rupert Taylor; and "Conclusion: The Third Sector at the Crossroads? Social, Political and Economic Dynamics" by Jeremy Kendall and Helmut K. Anheier. Indexed.

Brown, L. David; Kalegaonkar, Archana. "Support Organizations and the Evolution of the NGO Sector." Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, vol. 31 (June 2002): p. 231-58.
How do nongovernmental organizations influence the growth of civil society? And how do support organizations impact the nongovernmental sector? In order to study these questions, the authors focus on development NGOs in developing countries, examining the challenges from both inside and outside the sector, and the implications of those challenges. Authors outline and describe different types of support organizations and how they can bolster the evolution of the sector. With bibliographic references.

Heinrich, V. Finn. CIVICUS Global Survey of the State of Civil Society. Volume 1: Country Profiles. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press, 2007. xxxi, 454 p. Call Number: 360 HEI CIV Vol. 1
An assessment of civil society in 44 countries, based on the work of researchers and society experts around the world who collaborated on the Civil Society Index project. Each profile contains a historical overview of civil society in the country, and examines four specific dimensions related to civil society: size and composition; the social, political and economic environment; principles and values; and the measured impact.

Heinrich, V. Finn; Fioramonti, Lorenzo. CIVICUS Global Survey of the State of Civil Society. Volume 2: Comparative Perspectives. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press, 2008. xxxix, 406 p. Call Number: 360 HEI CIV Vol. 2
Scholars and practitioners analyze information from the Civil Society Index project, examining the project's research approach and challenges. Experts also contribute chapters that explore regional variations and key themes in global civil society.

The Non-Profit Sector in a Changing Economy. Paris, France: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2003. 337 p. ISBN: 92-64-19953-5. Call Number: 301 NON.
The book is organized into three broad categories: The Nonprofit Sector Today, Financing the Nonprofit Sector, and Evaluating the Nonprofit Sector. Within each section, various experts discuss and analyze the situation in the United States, Europe, Australia, Quebec, and Mexico. Includes glossary and bibliographical references.

Salamon, Lester M.; Sokolowski, S. Wojciech; List, Regina. Global Civil Society: An Overview. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University. Institute for Policy Studies, 2003. 64 p. ISBN: 1-886333-50-5. Call Number: 301 SAL GLO OVE.
Portrays the ongoing work of the Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project, and some of the results of research to date. The comparative analysis covers various aspects of the independent sector in 16 developed countries, 14 developing countries, and five transitional countries.

Salamon, Lester M., et al. Measuring Civil Society and Volunteering: Initial Findings From Implementation of the UN Handbook on Nonprofit Institutions. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University. Center for Civil Society Studies Institute for Policy Studies, 2007. 13 p.
Analyzes nonprofit sector data from the following countries: Australia, Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, France, Japan, New Zealand, and the United States. Full-text available.

Schmid, Hillel. Neighborhood Self-Management: Experiments in Civil Society. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2001. xiii, 168 p. ISBN: 0-306-46511-6. Call Number: 363 SCH.
Examines the growth of community councils in Jerusalem, Israel, and compares their development to similar entities in several other countries including England, Scotland, Wales, The Netherlands, Italy, Scandinavia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, and the United States. With bibliographic references and an index.

Taylor, Rupert. "Interpreting Global Civil Society." Voluntas, vol. 13 (December 2002): p. 339-47.
There is no single agreed-upon definition of the term "global civil society." The phrase takes on different meanings depending on use by various researchers in a variety of academic disciplines. The author outlines some points of disagreement among those in the many fields that have studied the growth of civil society internationally, and suggests several major areas for further research. With bibliographic references.

Transnational Civil Society

Batliwala, Srilatha; Brown, L. David. Transnational Civil Society: An Introduction. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press, 2006. 288 p. Call Number: 360 BAT.
Chapters discuss transnational civil society movements, networks, and collaborations.

Brown, L. David; Timmer, Vanessa. "Civil Society Actors as Catalysts for Transnational Social Learning." Voluntas, vol. 17 (March 2006): p. 1-16.
In a study of four collaborative arrangements among U. S. nonprofits and partnering African NGOs, the author suggests that a barrier exists that complicates matters and she proposes a means to ameliorate the situation. Five recommendations are given and examined.

Florini, Ann M. (ed.) The Third Force: The Rise of Transnational Civil Society. Toyko, Japan: Japan Center for International Exchange, 2000. viii, 295 p. ISBN: 0-87003-179-1. Call Number: 380 FLO.
Organized into chapters that present six case studies, written by various authors, this work examines the growth of transnational networks of nongovernmental organizations. "A Global Network to Curb Corruption: The Experience of Transparency International" by Fredrik Galtung describes the work of Transparency International. "Advocates and Activists: Conflicting Approaches on Nonproliferation and the Test Ban Treaty" by Rebecca Johnson looks at various international efforts in nuclear issues. "Toward Democratic Governance for Sustainable Development: Transnational Civil Society Organizing Around Big Dams" by Sanjeev Khagram focuses on the work of the World Commission on Dams. "Transnational Networks and Campaigns for Democracy" by Chetan Kumar describes movements in Mexico and Haiti to promote democratic governance. "Building Partnerships toward a Common Goal: Experiences of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines" by Motoko Medata describes the birth and growth of this organization working to eliminate landmines. "The Power of Norms versus the Norms of Power: Transnational Civil Society and Human Rights" by Thomas Risse looks at various initiatives such as Amnesty International. With annotated bibliography and index.

Koenig, Bonnie L. Going Global for the Greater Good: Succeeding as a Nonprofit in the International Community. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 2004. xvii, 154 p. ISBN: 0-7879-6676-2. Call Number: 350 KOE.
Koenig describes the potential benefits of developing a global presence, and offers concrete strategies for planning a move into the international arena. Also covers practical issues such as international communication, membership, and other logistical concerns. Includes brief glossary and bibliographical references.

Lindenberg, Marc; Bryant, Coralie. Going Global: Transforming Relief and Development NGOs. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press, 2001. xiv, 270 p. ISBN: 1-56549-135-1. Call Number: 350 LIN.
Nonprofits, like businesses and nations, are affected by globalization, and altering missions, systems, and programs in response. Authors delve into the international nonprofits working in the relief and development area, and examine several as case studies, including CARE USA, Oxfam America, and Save the Children USA, among others. Indexed.

Tvedt, Terje. "Development NGOs: Actors in a Global Civil Society or in a New International Social System?" Voluntas, vol. 13 (December 2002): p. 363-75.
The author argues that the role and importance of international aid has not been sufficiently studied as a structural force for the growth and impact of global civil society. This new international social system involves the recipient organizations, the donor agencies that evaluate the NGOs, United Nations offices, and the research consultancy business community, and other stakeholders.

International Philanthropy

Anheier, Helmut K. (ed.); List, Regina (ed.) Cross-Border Philanthropy: An Exploratory Study of International Giving in the United Kingdom, United States, Germany and Japan. Kent, England: Charities Aid Foundation, 2000. iii, 128 p. ISBN: 1-85934-123-3. Call Number: 301 ANH CRO.
A joint report of the Center for Civil Society Studies at the Johns Hopkins Institute for Policy Studies and the Centre for Civil Society of the London School of Economics. The data and analysis cover both organized and individual philanthropy, primarily from 1990-1996. Explains the tax and legal issues for each country. Bibliographic references are provided for each country.

Anheier, Helmut K. (ed.); Simmons, Adele (ed.); Winder, David (ed.). Innovation in Strategic Philanthropy: Local and Global Perspectives. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company Inc, 2007. Call Number: 301 ANH INN
In Part I, various specialists provide status reports on the third sector in Brazil, Central and Eastern Europe, Mexico, Pakistan, Philippines, South Africa, and Thailand. In Part II, authors provide a global perspective: "Distinct View--Intervening in the Practices of the Public and Private Sector" by Melanie Beth Oliviero and Adele Simmons; "The Global and Local Dimension" by Dan Nielsen; "Philanthropy and Networks in Global Civil Society" by Giuseppe Caruso; "The Role of Philanthropy Within the United Nations System: The Case of the United Nations Foundation" by Stefan Toepler and Natascha Mard; "Philanthropic Foundations' Assistance in Post-Conflict Situations: A Case Study of Post-Communist Southeast Europe" by Natalia Leshchenko; "The Infrastructure of Global Philanthropy: Wings and Wings-CF" by Diana Leat.

Edie, John A.; Nober, Jane C. Beyond Our Borders: A Guide to Making Grants Outside the U.S. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: Council on Foundations, 2002. iv, 119 p. ISBN 0-913892-85-8 330. Call Number: EDI 2002.
Details the technical and legal requirements for private and community foundations, corporate grantmakers, and public charities for making grants outside the U.S. An appendix includes sample materials, foreign equivalency determination forms, discussion of treaties with Canada, Mexico and Israel, Internal Revenue Service rulings governing friends organizations, suggested grant agreements for public charity grantors, guidance on expenditure responsibility, and more detailed discussions of technical points.

Eilinghoff, Dirk (ed.) Rethinking Philanthropic Effectiveness: Lessons From an International Network of Foundation Experts. Gütersloh, Germany: Verlag Bertelsmann Stiftung, 2005. 181 p.Call Number: 320 EIL
Various contributors provide contents: "The Role of Philanthropy in Globalization" by Helmut Anheier and Adele Simmons; "Promoting Philanthropy: Global Challenges and Approaches" by Paula D. Johnson, Stephen P. Johnson, and Andrew Kingman; "Effective Foundation Boards: The Importance of Roles" by Christine W. Letts; "Theories of Social Change: Background Paper" by Diana Leat; "The INSP Theory of Change Tool," "Philanthropy Program Design" by Richard Mittenthal; "The Role of Evaluation in the 21st Century Foundation" by Edward Pauly; "Who Comes to the Table? Stakeholder Interactions in Philanthropy" by Thomas E. Backer, Ralph Smith, and Ira Barbell; "Management Practices Surrounding Program Professionals in U. S. and European Foundations" by Nadya K. Shmavonian; "Innovations in Strategic Philanthropy: Lessons from Africa, Asia, Central and Eastern Europe, and Latin America" by Helmut Anheier and David Winder; and "Tools for Good: A Guide to Vehicles for Philanthropy and Charitable Giving" by Paula Doherty Johnson and Stephen P. Johnson.

Ellsworth, Frank L. (ed.); Lumarda, Joe (ed.) Foundation Management: Innovation and Responsibility at Home and Abroad. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2003. xxi, 312 p. ISBN: 0-471-26979-4. Call Number: 500 ELL.
A companion volume to "From Grantmaker to Leader: Emerging Strategies for Twenty-First Century Foundations" that discusses financial, legal, and international issues facing foundations today. The chapters include: "Emerging Legal Issues in International Philanthropy" by Jane Peebles; "Working with Foundations in Europe: Why and How?" from the European Foundation Centre; "Services Provided by European Foundations" by John Richardson, "Foundations in Germany: Growth, Professionalization, and the Search for a New Balance Between the State and the Nonprofit Sector" by Peter Walkenhorst; "Philanthropic Foundations in East Asia" by Barnett Baron; "Bolstering Border Philanthropy: United States and Mexico Join Forces to Combat an Array of Problems" by Grant Williams; "The Process of Investment: Stakeholder Negotiations" by Russell T. Hill and Craig T. Cross; "Assets, Investment, and Prudence" an interview with Joseph Kearns; and "The Role of Counsel in Foundations: Choices, Beginnings, and Service" by Reynolds Cafferata.

Forrest, Ludwig. "Crossing European Borders: How to Improve Cross-Border Giving In Europe." Philanthropy in Europe, vol. 18 (May 2004): p. 12-3. Subject File Number: 342.

Greene, Stephen G. "Borderless Giving Crucial to Solving Global Strife, Experts Say." Chronicle of Philanthropy, vol. 14 (21 March 2002): p. 10-1.
Discusses remarks from a conference organized by the Global Philanthropy Forum. Some speakers touched on promoting an international philanthropic vision in the aftermath of September 11. Nonprofit leaders also addressed the AIDS epidemic and spoke on the needs of Central Asia.

Harman, Dorothy Gitter. Report: The Middle East Study Missions for Foundations. Jerusalem, Israel: Van Leer Jerusalem Institute, 2002. 60 p. Call Number: 363 HAR.
Provides a history and status report of the Middle East Study Missions for Foundations Program, an initiative begun in 1995 to bring together international foundation and NGO leaders in order to foster cross-country cooperation in the region.

McCarthy, Kathleen D. (ed.) Women, Philanthropy, and Civil Society. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2001. v, 314 p. ISBN: 0-253-33918-9. Call Number: 312 MCC.
Various specialists present essays about women and philanthropy around the world. The contents include "Women and Philanthropy in Brazil: An Overview" by Leilah Landim; "Women and Philanthropy in Colonial and Post-Colonial Australia" by Shurlee Swain; "Parallel Power Structures, Invisible Careers, and the Changing Nature of American Jewish Women's Philanthropy" by Susan M. Chambré; "Women and Philanthropy in Egypt" by Amani Kandil; "An Islamic Activist in Interwar Egypt" by Beth Baron; "Women and Philanthropy in Palestinian and Egyptian Societies: The Contributions of Islamic Thought and the Strategy of National Survival" by Ghada Hashem Talhami; "Women and Philanthropy in India" by Pushpa Sundar; and "Women and Philanthropy in South Korea from a Non-Western Perspective" by Hye Kyung Lee.

Moore, Jonathon R. International Charitable Foundations: An Introduction. Ardsley, NY: Transnational Publishers, Inc., 2002. xiii, 72 p plus appendices. ISBN: 1-57105-281-X. Call Number: 305 MOO.
The book is directed to those who wish to establish a charitable foundation, but wish to do so outside the United States. Some donors will find the regulatory requirements of U.S. foundations to be onerous, according to Moore, and the legal structures in others countries to be more advantageous. The framework of the law, and constraints, are described, and followed by chapters that discuss the considerations involved in establishing a foreign entity. Appendices reprint various IRS documents, and three templates for charitable trusts located in Bermuda and Barbados. With glossary and bibliographical references.

Nichols, Rebecca; Mackinnon, Anne. International Grant Making: Funding with a Global View. New York, NY: Ford Foundation, 2004. 25 p. (GrantCraft: Practical Wisdom for Grantmakers. No. 10). Call Number: 519 GRA #10.
This is an introduction to the complexities of international grantmaking, explaining the options that foundations can use, some of the roadblocks (such as communications) and how working with intermediaries can be helpful.

Rollins, Karina (ed.) The Index of Global Philanthropy, 2007. Washington, DC: Hudson Institute, 2007. 80 p. Call Number: 330 IGP 2007
The researchers attempt to document and measure U.S. giving overseas. The first chapter covers statistics on government foreign aid. Subsequent chapters provide data and analyses on giving by foundations, corporations, public charities, universities, religious organizations, volunteers, and remittances.

Renz, Loren; Atienza, Josefina. International Grantmaking Update. New York, NY: Foundation Center, 2006. 7 p.
Briefly examines recent changes in international and cross-border giving by U.S. foundations. Full-text available.

Schlüter, Andreas (ed.); Then, Volker (ed.); Walkenhorst, Peter (ed.) Foundations in Europe: Society, Management and Law. London, England: Directory of Social Change, 2001. xx, 875 p. ISBN: 1-900360-86-1. Call Number: 342 SCH.
Provides thorough historical, legal and social contexts for foundations in 19 European countries, written by area specialists: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. Additional chapters give a report on the European Foundation Centre, discuss the role that foundations played in Eastern Europe after the fall of Communism, analyze governance and program issues, and explain the legal and fiscal framework. Appendices outline the specific laws and legislation governing foundations in Europe.

"When Should the Local Go Global?" Foundation News & Commentary, vol. 43 (January-February 2002): p. 46-8.
Considerations for funders that are deliberating about moving into international grantmaking, in a hypothetical case study. Positive and negative responses are given in the debate.

Williams, Roger M. "European Growth Industry." Foundation News & Commentary, vol. 44 (September-October 2003): p. 40-3.
A status report on the growth of community foundations in Europe today, indicating that the trend is firmly established and growing. A sidebar features a profile of Nick Massey, head of the Community Foundation for Greater Manchester (England).

Wood, Jayne Millar (ed.) Case Studies of Grantmaker Associations Around the World. Washington, DC: Council on Foundations, 2002. xxiii, 52 p. (Philanthropy in a Global Community Series, Volume 1). Call Number: 360 WIN WOO.
Published by the Council on Foundations and Community Foundations of Canada on behalf of the Worldwide Initiatives for Grantmaker Support (WINGS). The book provides profiles of the following organizations: Community Foundations of Canada, Czech Donors Forum, East Africa Association of Grantmakers, European Foundation Centre, GIFE-Grupo de Institutos, Fundações e Empresas, and the League of Corporate Foundations, Inc., as well as regional associations of grantmakers in the U.S.

Internet Resources

Allavida is an international development organization that seeks to support social change in local communities in Southeastern Europe, East Africa, and Central Asia. Allavida's magazine, Alliance has a comprehensive list of civil society journals, magazines, and newsletters.

Arlington, Virginia-based Ashoka searches the world for the best new ideas, championed by the most capable, innovative social entrepreneurs and invests in them financially and professionally by selecting them to be Ashoka Fellows. The organization currently has fellows in Africa, Asia, Central Europe, Latin America, the United States, and Canada working in a range of fields, including learning/education, the environment, health, human rights, economic development, and civic participation. The Web site offers information on selection procedures, job and volunteer opportunities, and an online donation form.

Charities Aid Foundation
Charities Aid Foundation, an international organization based in the United Kingdom, encourages more efficient giving to charity. It's Web site includes contact information for thousands of charities, serves as a technical assistance provider to both funders and nonprofits, and offers links to several charity-related specialty sites.

Civicus is an international alliance dedicated to strengthening citizen action and the capacity of civil society throughout the world, especially in areas where participatory democracy, freedom of association of citizens, and funds for public benefit are threatened. The Web site has links to current civil society news, awards and scholarship information, descriptions of specific programming areas, and country reports from Belarus, Canada, Croatia, Estonia, Mexico, New Zealand, Pakistan, Romania, South Africa, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Wales.

Grantmakers Without Borders
Grantmakers Without Borders, a collaborative project of the Tides Center and the International Working Group of the National Network of Grantmakers, works to expand and enrich progressive international philanthropy and to support international projects by providing free advice, alternative sources of information, and increased opportunities for communication among donors.

Idealist, a project of Action Without Borders, is available in English, Spanish, French, and Russian. It has a searchable network of more than 30,000 nonprofit and community organizations in 165 countries, which can be searched or browsed by name, location, or mission; a searchable list of volunteer opportunities; hundreds of job, consultant, and internship listings; and listings of events, programs, and publications. News articles, commentary, reports, and essays related to NGOs are updated frequently.

International Directories of Foundations: A Resource List
The Foundation Center has compiled this list of directories that will help those wishing to research foundations located outside the United States.

The International Society for Third-Sector Research
The International Society for Third-Sector Research plays a leading role in supporting research on civil society, philanthropy, and the nonprofit sector around the world. Browse the Web site for regional affinity groups and international conferences.

Philanthropy News Digest
The news service of the Foundation Center is a compendium of philanthropy-related articles and features culled from print and electronic media outlets nationwide. Browse the "International Affairs" section for the latest news on global philanthropy.

For more links to nonprofit resources related to international philanthropy click here.
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